This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. While the water-rock interaction is the dominant process controlling the groundwater chemistry, evaporation and groundwater mixing affect the hydrochemistry at the UAE borders. Therefore, groundwater evolves from carbonate-dominant in the NOM into sodium chloride-dominant close to the UAE borders. It is also evident that groundwater lateral recharge from the ophiolites into the alluvium retains the chemical affinity of the ophiolites. Furthermore, the data clearly showed that modern groundwater mixes with older groundwater along the flow path from the NOM into the UAE border. Modern recharge occurs as lateral recharge from NOM and direct recharge in the plain area. The current findings support future development of aflaj system along NOM slopes and shallow wells in the plain areas. Proper management of these resources is fundamental for sustainability and development [ 1 — 3 ]. Groundwater in the border regions separating the Sultanate of Oman and the United Arab Emirates UAE , near the Al Buraimi and Al Ain areas, represents an important resource for sustainable agricultural and urban development [ 4 ].
Sediment dating and groundwater residence time in the lower basin
Tritium illumination The beta particles emitted by the radioactive decay of small amounts of tritium cause chemicals called phosphors to glow. This radioluminescence is used in self-powered lighting devices called betalights , which are used for night illumination of firearm sights, watches , exit signs , map lights, knives and a variety of other devices. Tritium has replaced radioluminescent paint containing radium in this application, which can cause bone cancer and has been banned in most countries for decades.
It is used to enhance the efficiency and yield of fission bombs and the fission stages of hydrogen bombs in a process known as ” boosting ” as well as in external neutron initiators for such weapons. Neutron initiator[ edit ] These are devices incorporated in nuclear weapons which produce a pulse of neutrons when the bomb is detonated to initiate the fission reaction in the fissionable core pit of the bomb, after it is compressed to a critical mass by explosives.
A combined hydrogeologic and isotopic investigation using hydrochemical and isotopic tracers such as 18 O, 2 H, 3 H, 13 C and 14 C was carried out in order to determine the sources of water recharge to the aquifers, the groundwater flow system, and the residence time of these waters.
Link to list of publications. Technical Approach Objectives include: We can then leverage that natural attenuation mechanism quantification in developing contaminant attenuation enhancement approaches for in situ remediation feasibility. Benefits This project will advance our ability to characterize contaminant attenuation. These research results will enhance our ability to quantify and predict feasibility of remediation approaches, and assessment of natural attenuation processes will support extension of naturally occurring contaminant attenuation processes to actively enhanced attenuation for contaminant remediation.
Technical Approach Specific objectives and approach includes: Benefits This project will advance our ability to characterize and our mechanistic understanding of flow, transport, and geochemical reactions occuring within hyporheic zones, which will advance Hg contamination cleanup efficiency. We do not know how sustainable our water resources are, because we have not characterized the storage, flow dynamics, and resiliency of the groundwater system, especially for the deeper aquifers.
Also, use of nontraditional e. Objective The objectives of the study are to characterize the deep groundwater system in the Mesilla Basin and to determine the contribution of deep groundwater to flow and salinity in the shallow groundwater of the Mesilla Basin. Geochemical and isotopic tracers will be used to pursue these objectives, as well as to evaluate the potential for cross-basin recharge from the adjacent basins.
This study will identify the sources and determine the rates of recharge of the Mesilla Basin Aquifer groundwater by employing environmental isotopes in a multi-tracer approach to characterize groundwater movement.
In this paper, we report on the first use of 81Kr to determine the age of groundwater from four wells in the Great Artesian Basin in Australia. As the concentration of 81Kr in old groundwater is only a few hundred atoms per liter, krypton was extracted from large 16 l groundwater samples and was analyzed for the isotopic abundance of 81Kr by accelerator mass spectrometry AMS with a cyclotron.
The observed reduction of isotope ratios in the groundwater samples can then be interpreted as being due to radioactive decay since recharge.
If we measure the daughter product 3 He, however, we can estimate groundwater age because. 6. where C atm is the concentration of 3 He derived from the atmosphere, Groundwater dating and residence-time measurements. In Treatise on Geochemistry, ed. HD Holland, KK Turekian.
The residence time and the intensity of recharge play an important role in controlling the chemical composition of spring water which mainly depends on distance from the main recharge area. High CO2 yields lower pH values and thus under-saturation with respect to calcite and dolomite. Low CO2 concentrations result in over-saturation.
Only at the beginning and at the end of the rainy season calcite saturation is achieved. The degradation of dissolved organic matter is a major source for increasing water hardness. Besides dissolution of carbonates dissolved species such as nitrate, chloride, and sulfate are leached from soil and aquifer rocks together with only small amounts of Mg. Mg not only originates from carbonates but also from Mg—Cl waters are leached from aquifer rocks. Leaching of Mg—Cl brines is particularly high at the beginning of the winter season and lowest at its end.
Two zones of recharge are distinguishable. Zone 1 represented by Ein Fara and Ein Qilt is fed directly through the infiltration of meteoric water and surface runoff from the mountains along the eastern mountain slopes with little groundwater residence time and high flow rate. The second zone is near the western border of Jericho at the foothills, which is mainly fed by the under-groundwater flow from the eastern slopes with low surface infiltration rate.
Symposium Sessions, Saturday November 19th
Description Understand the Environmental Processes That Control Groundwater Quality The integration of environmental isotopes with geochemical studies is now recognized as a routine approach to solving problems of natural and contaminated groundwater quality. Advanced sampling and analytical methods are readily accessible and affordable, providing abundant geochemical and isotope data for high spatial resolution and high frequency time series. Groundwater Geochemistry and Isotopes provides the theoretical understanding and interpretive methods and contains a useful chapter presenting the basics of sampling and analysis.
This text teaches the thermodynamic basis and principal reactions involving the major ions, gases and isotopes during groundwater recharge, weathering and redox evolution. Subsequent chapters apply these principles in hands-on training for dating young groundwaters with tritium and helium and ancient systems with radiocarbon, radiohalides and noble gases, and for tracing reactions of the major contaminants of concern in groundwaters. Visit our Gift Guides and find our recommendations on what to get friends and family during the holiday season.
Dec 22, · Recently we presented two papers one dedicated to the estimation of the water budget components in a small, basin, the Posina catchment [Abera et al., ], and the other in a large basin, the Blue Nile [Abera et al., b].
However, in groundwater 39Ar can be produced in situ by the following reactions: Lithogenic Measurement Techniques return to top Gas proportional counting Argon analysis is purely research-based at present because of the very small concentration of argon in water. Argon represents less than one percent of the total gases in the atmosphere. Equilibrium with the atmosphere therefore produces minute concentrations of dissolved argon in water.
Samples are analyzed by high pressure gas proportional counting. Since the activity of 39Ar is very low around 2 counts per hour , approximately 1 month is required for analysis Cook and Herczeg
International Journal of Nuclear Energy
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract The assessment of nuclear objects sites in Lithuania, including groundwater characterization, took place in the last few years. Tritium activity in groundwater is a very useful tool for determining how groundwater systems function.
Groundwater residence time (or groundwater age) is generally defined as the length of time since a water molecule has been isolated from the atmosphere (Davis and Bentley, ). According to the definition by Kazemi et al. (, p. 6), however, groundwater residence.
High School Statutory Authority: Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. Chemistry or concurrent enrollment in Chemistry. This course is recommended for students in Grades 10, 11, or In Aquatic Science, students study the interactions of biotic and abiotic components in aquatic environments, including impacts on aquatic systems. Investigations and field work in this course may emphasize fresh water or marine aspects of aquatic science depending primarily upon the natural resources available for study near the school.
Students who successfully complete Aquatic Science will acquire knowledge about a variety of aquatic systems, conduct investigations and observations of aquatic environments, work collaboratively with peers, and develop critical-thinking and problem-solving skills. Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the “use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process.
Students should know that some questions are outside the realm of science because they deal with phenomena that are not scientifically testable. Scientific inquiry is the planned and deliberate investigation of the natural world. Scientific methods of investigation can be experimental, descriptive, or comparative. The method chosen should be appropriate to the question being asked. Scientific decision making is a way of answering questions about the natural world.
Students should be able to distinguish between scientific decision-making methods and ethical and social decisions that involve the application of scientific information.
Use of tracers to quantify groundwater recharge reviewed. Abstract Documenting the location and magnitude of groundwater recharge is critical for understanding groundwater flow systems. Radioactive tracers, notably 14C, 3H, 36Cl, and the noble gases, together with other tracers whose concentrations vary over time, such as the chlorofluorocarbons or sulfur hexafluoride, are commonly used to estimate recharge rates.
This review discusses some of the advantages and problems of using these tracers to estimate recharge rates. The suite of tracers allows recharge to be estimated over timescales ranging from a few years to several hundred thousand years, which allows both the long-term and modern behaviour of groundwater systems to be documented.
The Adriatic Sea / ˌ eɪ d r i ˈ æ t ɪ k / is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan Adriatic is the northernmost arm of the Mediterranean Sea, extending from the Strait of Otranto (where it connects to the Ionian Sea) to the northwest and the Po countries with coasts on the Adriatic are Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Italy.
Description Understand the Environmental Processes That Control Groundwater Quality The integration of environmental isotopes with geochemical studies is now recognized as a routine approach to solving problems of natural and contaminated groundwater quality. Advanced sampling and analytical methods are readily accessible and affordable, providing abundant geochemical and isotope data for high spatial resolution and high frequency time series.
Groundwater Geochemistry and Isotopes provides the theoretical understanding and interpretive methods and contains a useful chapter presenting the basics of sampling and analysis. This text teaches the thermodynamic basis and principal reactions involving the major ions, gases and isotopes during groundwater recharge, weathering and redox evolution. Subsequent chapters apply these principles in hands-on training for dating young groundwaters with tritium and helium and ancient systems with radiocarbon, radiohalides and noble gases, and for tracing reactions of the major contaminants of concern in groundwaters.
Reviews “The book is very clearly written, and each chapter provides students and long-time practitioners with practical examples and essential information needed for understanding and applying isotopic and geochemical principles to their research. Groundwater Geochemistry and Isotopes will be an essential resource for all students of isotopes and aqueous geochemistry. Leonard Wassenaar, International Atomic Energy Agency “The author combines geochemistry and environmental isotopes quite nicely.
He uses short and rather simple explanations not an easy task with many practical examples. I especially found the real-world examples interesting and illuminating. If you have any interest in geochemical applications of isotopes, this is the book for you. Included in each chapter, in addition to theoretical knowledge, are examples of calculations and interpretation of research results, as well as sets of tasks and questions.
This approach facilitates its use as a manual and makes it especially useful for students.
Tracer applications of noble gas radionuclides in the geosciences
Posted on 7 December by Rob Painting Key points An accurately dated, near-continuous, history of sea level variations for the last , years has been compiled. The Greenland ice sheet responding virtually straight away years lag time , and a lag for the Antarctic ice sheet. These response times are much faster than was previously commonly suspected, and implies that once sufficient polar warming is underway, future ice sheet collapse may be unavoidable.
During all episodes of major global ice loss, sea level rise has reached rates of at least 1. This is 4 times the current rate of sea level rise. Figure 1 – Sea level reconstruction from , years ago to the present.
The residence time of groundwater in the aquifer of the lower Var valley was determined by measuring activity ratios of radium isotopes in well water samples. To cite this article: V. Barci et al., C. R. Chimie 12 (). Ó Acade´mie des sciences.
In total, more than 3. MOSE Project north of Lido di Venezia Venice , which was originally built on islands off the coast, is most at risk due to subsidence, but the threat is present in the Po delta as well. The causes are a decrease in sedimentation rate due to loss of sediment behind dams, the deliberate excavation of sand for industrial purposes, agricultural use of water, and removal of ground water. Recent studies have suggested that the city is no longer sinking,   but a state of alert remains in place.
Modulo Sperimentale Elettromeccanico , an experimental model for evaluating the performance of inflatable gates. The project proposes laying a series of 79 inflatable pontoons across the sea bed at the three entrances to the Venetian Lagoon. This engineering work is due to be completed by This separation began in the Middle and Late Triassic , when limestone began to be deposited in the area. In the Eocene and early Oligocene , the plate moved north and north-east, contributing to the Alpine orogeny along with the African and Eurasian Plates ‘ movements via the tectonic uplift of the Dinarides and Alps.
In the Late Oligocene , the motion was reversed and the Apennine Mountains’ orogeny took place.
Climate Science Glossary
My reflections and notes about hydrology and being a hydrologist in academia. The daily evolution of my work. Especially for my students, but also for anyone with the patience to read them.
Groundwater dating (high pmc), homogeneous 87Sr/86Sr ratios, and enriched δ2H and δ18O demonstrate the presence of modern recharge in the shallow zones of the ophiolites and alluvium. Large variation of Sr concentration may indicate the effect of groundwater residence time. an analysis of equilibrium state applied to Eh measurements.
Irka Hajdas, Susan Ivy-Ochs 9: Geochemical dataset of the Rhone River delta Lake Geneva sediments — disentangling human impacts from climate change 9: Holocene seismic activity of the Yavansu fault, western Turkey 9: Landscape evolution of the northern Alpine Foreland: Holocene treeline changes in the Canadian Cordillera are controlled by climate and local topography Historical evolution of human land-use in the catchment of Lake Murten Surface exposure dating of Lateglacial and Holocene glacier extents in the Canton of Uri, Switzerland